Genotoxicity assessments of N-nitrosoethylisopropylamine (NEIPA) and N-nitrosodiisopropylamine (NDIPA) in the C57BL/6J mouse -Pub

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This research is coming from National Institutes for Food and Drug Control, Key Laboratory of Beijing for Nonclinical Safety Evaluation Research of Drugs, China. “Genotoxicity assessments of N-nitrosoethylisopropylamine (NEIPA) and N-nitrosodiisopropylamine (NDIPA) in the C57BL/6J mouse”

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N-Nitrosamines, known as drug impurities and suspected carcinogens, have drawn significant public concern. In response to drug regulatory needs, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) has previously proposed a carcinogenic potency categorization approach based on the N-nitrosamine α-hydroxylation hypothesis, i.e., that N-nitrosamine mutagenicity increases with the number of α-hydrogen atoms. However, this structure-activity relationship has not been fully tested in vivo . NEIPA (N-nitrosoethylisopropylamine) and NDIPA (N-nitrosodiisopropylamine) are small N-Nitrosamines with similar structures, differing in that the former compound has an additional α-hydrogen atom. In this study, NEIPA and NEIPA doses, 25–100 mg/kg, were administered orally to C57BL/6 J mice for seven consecutive days, and their mutation and DNA damage effects were compared. Compared with NDIPA, the mutagenicity and DNA damage potencies of NEIPA (which contains one more α-hydrogen) were much greater. These differences may be related to their distinct metabolic pathways and target organs. This case study confirms the role of α-hydroxyl modification in the mutagenicity of nitrosamines, with oxidation at the α-hydrogen being a crucial step in the formation of mutagens from N-Nitrosamines, and can inform mutagenicity risk assessment and the formulation of regulatory standards for N-nitrosamine impurities.