by Avinash et al. “LC/Q-TOF-MS-based structural characterization of enasidenib degradation products and establishment of a stability-indicating assay method: Insights into chemical stability”
Enasidenib (EDB) is an orally active selective mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase-2 enzyme inhibitor approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat acute myeloid leukemia. It lacks a reported forced degradation study and a stability-indicating assay method (SIAM). This study addresses this gap by establishing a degradation profile in accordance with the International Council for Harmonisation Q1A and Q1B (R2) guidelines and developing a validated SIAM for EDB. Methods: EDB was exposed to forced degradation under various conditions (hydrolytic, photolytic, oxidative, and thermal stress). Degradation samples were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography on an Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C18 column with a mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid in Milli-Q water and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1 mL/min and detection at 270 nm. Liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOF HRMS) was used for the identification and characterization of degradation products. Nitrosamine risk assessment was conducted using a modified nitrosation assay procedure (NAP) test due to the presence of a secondary amine group in the drug, which is liable to forming nitrosamine drug substance–related impurities (NDSRI). Results: The drug exhibited significant degradation under acidic, basic, photolytic, and oxidative conditions in the solution state. A total of nine degradation products (DP) were formed (DP-I, DP-III, and DP-IV: acidic conditions; DP-I and DP-III: basic conditions; DP-II, DP-V, DP-VI, and DP-VII: oxidative stress; and DP-VII, DP-VIII, and DP-IX: photolytic conditions), which were separated and identified using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and characterized using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. The mechanism behind the formation of EDB degradation products has been discussed, and this study was the first to develop a degradation pathway for EDB. In addition, the possibilities of NDSRI formation for EDB were studied using a modified NAP test, which can contribute to the risk assessment of the drug.