A fantastic study by Miha Homšak et al. Assessment of a Diverse Array of Nitrite Scavengers in Solution and Solid State: A Study of Inhibitory Effect on the Formation of Alkyl-Aryl and Dialkyl N-Nitrosamine Derivatives
Thanks for sharing @TrMa1990
Open access: Processes | Free Full-Text | Assessment of a Diverse Array of Nitrite Scavengers in Solution and Solid State: A Study of Inhibitory Effect on the Formation of Alkyl-Aryl and Dialkyl N-Nitrosamine Derivatives
The ubiquitous presence of mutagenic and potentially carcinogenic N-nitrosamine impurities in medicines has become a major issue in the pharmaceutical industry in recent years. Rigorous mitigation strategies to limit their amount in drug products are, therefore, needed. The removal of nitrite, which is a prerequisite reagent for the N-nitrosation of amines, has been acknowledged as one of the most promising strategies. We have conducted an extensive literature search to identify nineteen structurally diverse nitrite scavengers and screened their activity experimentally under pharmaceutically relevant conditions. In the screening phase, we have identified six compounds that proved to have the best nitrite scavenging properties: ascorbic acid (vitamin C), sodium ascorbate, maltol, propyl gallate, para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), and l-cysteine. These were selected for investigation as inhibitors of the formation of N-methyl-N-nitrosoaniline (NMA) from N-methylaniline and N-nitroso-N’-phenylpiperazine (NPP) from N-phenylpiperazine in both solution and model tablets. Much faster kinetics of NMA formation compared to NPP was observed, but the former was less stable at high temperatures. Vitamin C, PABA, and l-cysteine were recognized as the most effective inhibitors under most studied conditions. The nitrite scavenging activity does not directly translate into N-nitrosation inhibitory effectiveness, indicating other reaction pathways may take place. The study presents an important contribution to identifying physiologically acceptable chemicals that could be added to drugs to prevent N-nitrosation during manufacture and storage.